## 2019年7月17日星期三

### Investigation of amorphous germanium contact properties with planar detectors made from USD-grown germanium crystals

The characterization of detectors fabricated from home-grown crystals is the most direct way to study crystal properties. We fabricated planar detectors from high-purity germanium (HPGe) crystals grown at the University of South Dakota (USD). In the fabrication process, a HPGe crystal slice cut from a USD-grown crystal was coated with a high resistivity thin film of amorphous Ge (a-Ge) followed by depositing a thin layer of aluminum on top of the a-Ge film to define the physical area of the contacts. We investigated the detector performance including the I-V characteristics, C-V characteristics and spectroscopy measurements for a few detectors. The results document the good quality of the USD-grown crystals and electrical contacts.

Source:IOPscience

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## 2019年7月9日星期二

### Infrared and terahertz transmission properties of germanium single crystals

Experimental transmission spectra of samples fabricated of germanium single crystals doped with stibium were registered in the infrared 2.5-25 μm and terahertz 130 μm regions of spectrum. It is shown that doping concentration and treatment of the crystals surface have a noticeable influence on the samples absorption.

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## 2019年7月5日星期五

### Study on the Properties of High Purity Germanium Crystals

In the crystal growth lab of South Dakota University, we are growing high purity germanium (HPGe) crystals and using the grown crystals to make radiation detectors. As the detector grade HPGe crystals, they have to meet two critical requirements: an impurity level of ~109 to 10 atoms /cm3 and a dislocation density in the range of ~102 to 104 / cm3. In the present work, we have used the following four characterization techniques to investigate the properties of the grown crystals. First of all, an x-ray diffraction method was used to determine crystal orientation. Secondly, the van der Pauw Hall effect measurement was used to measure the electrical properties. Thirdly, a photo-thermal ionization spectroscopy (PTIS) was used to identify what the impurity atoms are in the crystal. Lastly, an optical microscope observation was used to measure dislocation density in the crystal. All of these characterization techniques have provided great helps to our crystal activities.

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## 2019年6月20日星期四

### Temperature-independent slow carrier emission from deep-level defects in p-type germanium

In the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra of the 3d-transition metals cobalt and chromium in p-type germanium, evidence is obtained that hole emission from defect levels can occur by two parallel paths. Besides classical thermal emission, we observed a second, slower and temperature-independent emission. We show that this extra emission component allows determining unambiguously whether or not multiple DLTS peaks arise from the same defect. Despite similar characteristics, we demonstrate that the origin of the non-thermal emission is not tunnelling but photoionization related to black-body radiation from an insufficiently shielded part of the cryostat.

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## 2019年6月14日星期五

### Ultralarge transient optical gain from tensile-strained, n-doped germanium on silicon by spin-on dopant diffusion

The direct band gap optical gain of tensile-strained, highly n-doped germanium on silicon is investigated by femtosecond ultrafast transmittance spectroscopy. A germanium film with 0.22% tensile strain is grown on a silicon substrate by using molecular beam epitaxy. An activated doping concentration up to 4 × 1019 cm−3 is achieved by phosphorus diffusion from a spin-on dopant source. The transmittance of the germanium film is clearly increased upon increasing the pump power. A peak optical gain of up to 5300 cm−1 around 1.7 µm and a gain spectrum broader than 300 nm are obtained. These results show a simple yet promising way to realize gain medium for monolithic-integrated germanium lasers.

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## 2019年6月5日星期三

### Vertically oriented epitaxial germanium nanowires on silicon substrates using thin germanium buffer layers

We demonstrate a method to realize vertically oriented Ge nanowires on Si(111) substrates. Ge nanowires were grown by chemical vapor deposition using Au nanoparticles to seed nanowire growth via a vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism. Rapid oxidation of Si during Au nanoparticle application inhibits the growth of vertically oriented Ge nanowires directly on Si. The present method employs thin Ge buffer layers grown at low temperature less than 600 °C to circumvent the oxidation problem. By using a thin Ge buffer layer with root-mean-square roughness of ~ 2 nm, the yield of vertically oriented Ge nanowires is as high as 96.3%. This yield is comparable to that of homoepitaxial Ge nanowires. Furthermore, branched Ge nanowires could be successfully grown on these vertically oriented Ge nanowires by a secondary seeding technique. Since the buffer layers are grown under moderate conditions without any high temperature processing steps, this method has a wide process window highly suitable for Si-based microelectronics.

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## 2019年5月28日星期二

### nfrared and terahertz transmission properties of germanium single crystals

Experimental transmission spectra of samples fabricated of germanium single crystals doped with stibium were registered in the infrared 2.5-25 μm and terahertz 130 μm regions of spectrum. It is shown that doping concentration and treatment of the crystals surface have a noticeable influence on the samples absorption.

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## 2019年5月23日星期四

### Germanium layers grown by zone thermal crystallization from a discrete liquid source

It is proposed and investigated a method for growing thin uniform germanium layers onto large silicon substrates. The technique uses the hexagonally arranged local sources filled with liquid germanium. Germanium evaporates on very close substrate and in these conditions the residual gases vapor pressure highly reduces. It is shown that to achieve uniformity of the deposited layer better than 97% the critical thickness of the vacuum zone must be equal to l cr = 1.2 mm for a hexagonal arranged system of round local sources with the radius of r = 0.75 mm and the distance between the sources of h = 0.5 mm.

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## 2019年5月16日星期四

### Highly boron-doped germanium layers on Si(001) grown by carbon-mediated epitaxy

Smooth and fully relaxed highly boron-doped germanium layers were grown directly on Si(001) substrates using carbon-mediated epitaxy. A doping level of ${N}_{{\rm{A}}}\approx 1.1\times {10}^{20}\,{{\rm{cm}}}^{-3}$ was measured by several methods. Using high-resolution x-ray diffraction we observed different lattice parameters for intrinsic and highly boron-doped samples. A lattice parameter of a Ge:B = 5.653 Å was calculated using the results obtained by reciprocal space mapping around the (113) reflection and the model of tetragonal distortion. The observed lattice contraction was adapted and brought in accordance with a theoretical model developed for ultra-highly boron-doped silicon. Raman spectroscopy was performed on the intrinsic and doped samples. A shift in the first order phonon scattering peak was observed and attributed to the high doping level. A doping level of $(1.28\pm 0.19)\times {10}^{20}\,{{\rm{cm}}}^{-3}$ was calculated by comparison with literature. We also observed a difference between the intrinsic and doped sample in the range of second order phonon scattering. Here, an intense peak is visible at $544.8\,{{\rm{cm}}}^{-1}$ for the doped samples. This peak was attributed to the bond between germanium and the boron isotope 11B.

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## 2019年5月9日星期四

### The effect of germanium doping on oxygen donors in Czochralski-grown silicon

In this paper the effect of germanium doping on oxygen donors in Czochralski (CZ) silicon has been investigated. It is found that germanium suppresses the formation of thermal donors during annealing at 450 °C, as a result of the reaction of Ge with point defects in CZ silicon. Meanwhile, it is clarified that germanium enhances the formation of new donors in CZ silicon, which is proposed to be a process associated with the nucleation enhancement of oxygen precipitation by germanium doping.

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## 2019年4月30日星期二

### Medium-energy ion irradiation of Si and Ge wafers: studies of surface nanopatterning and signature of recrystallization in 100 keV Kr+bombarded a-Si

We report new and exciting experimental results on ion-induced nanopatterning of a-Si and a-Ge surfaces. The crystalline Si (100) and Ge (100) wafers were amorphized and an a/c interface was developed by pre-irradiation with a 50 keV Ar+ beam at normal incidence with an ion fluence of 5.0 × 1015 ions cm−2. These amorphized surfaces were post-irradiated with Ar+ and Kr+ beams at an angle of 60°. The post irradiation was done with ion fluences of 1.0 × 1017 ions cm−2. For each beam, two energies (50 and 200 keV for Ar+, 100 and 250 keV for Kr+) were chosen to ensure ion stopping in both sides of the a/c interface. Regular nanopatterning (in the form of ripples) is observed on the Ge surface only with the post irradiation of the Kr+ beam. The Si surface showed regular nanopatterning with the irradiation of both beams with two energies. For the ion beams crossing the a/c interface, ripples of higher amplitude and longer wavelength were formed. Further, the irradiation with a heavy beam yielded surface ripples of relatively larger amplitudes. The Raman measurements confirm amorphization of the pre-irradiated surfaces. Surprisingly, the post-irradiated Si surface with the 100 keV Kr+ beam showed evidence of recrystallization. In the paper we discuss the physics at the interface and explain the experimental findings.

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## 2019年4月24日星期三

### Electrical properties of Si/Si bonded wafers based on an amorphous Ge interlayer

An amorphous Ge intermediate layer is introduced into the Si bonded interface to lower the annealing temperature and achieve good electrical characteristics. The interface and electrical characteristics of n-Si/n-Si and p-Si/n-Si junctions manufactured by low-temperature wafer bonding based on a thin amorphous Ge are investigated. It is found that the bubble density tremendously decreases when the a-Ge film is not immersed in DI water. This is due to the decrease of the −OH groups. In addition, when the samples are annealed at 400 °C for 20 h, the bubbles totally disappear. This can be explained by the appearance of the polycrystalline Ge (absorption of H2) at the bonded interface. The junction resistance of the n-Si/n-Si bonded wafers decreases with the increase of the annealing temperature. This is consistent with the recrystallization of the a-Ge when high-temperature annealing is conducted. The carrier transport of the Si-based PN junction annealed at 350 °C is consistent with the trap-assisted tunneling model and that annealed at 400 °C is related to the carrier recombination model.

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## 2019年4月18日星期四

### Fabrication of Ge-on-insulator wafers by Smart-CutTM with thermal management for undamaged donor Ge wafers

Newly engineered substrates consisting of semiconductor-on-insulator are gaining much attention as starting materials for the subsequent transfer of semiconductor nanomembranes via selective etching of the insulating layer. Germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates are critically important because of the versatile applications of Ge nanomembranes (Ge NMs) toward electronic and optoelectronic devices. Among various fabrication techniques, the Smart-CutTM technique is more attractive than other methods because a high temperature annealing process can be avoided. Another advantage of Smart-CutTM is the reusability of the donor Ge wafer. However, it is very difficult to realize an undamaged Ge wafer because there exists a large mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion among the layers. Although an undamaged donor Ge wafer is a prerequisite for its reuse, research related to this issue has not yet been reported. Here we report the fabrication of 4-inch GeOI substrates using the direct wafer bonding and Smart-CutTM process with a low thermal budget. In addition, a thermo-mechanical simulation of GeOI was performed by COMSOL to analyze induced thermal stress in each layer of GeOI. Crack-free donor Ge wafers were obtained by annealing at 250 °C for 10 h. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated similarly favorable crystalline quality of the Ge layer in GeOI compared to that of bulk Ge. In addition, Ge p-n diodes using transferred Ge NM indicate a clear rectifying behavior with an on and off current ratio of 500 at ±1 V. This demonstration offers great promise for high performance transferrable Ge NM-based device applications.

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## 2019年4月9日星期二

### Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films on conducting layer coated glass substrates

The effect of the underlayer on the Al-induced crystallized (AIC) Ge thin film is investigated to achieve a high-quality Ge layer on a conducting-layer-coated glass substrate. We found that the crystal orientation and the grain size of the AIC-Ge layer strongly depend on the underlayer material. We explain that this phenomenon is related to the interfacial energy between Ge and the underlayer material and/or the crystal property of the underlayer material, since the Ge nucleation likely occurs at the interface under the growth condition employed in this study. Among the samples with Al-doped ZnO, ITO, and TiN conducting underlayers, the TiN sample yields the highest crystal quality: the (111) orientation fraction of 96% and the average grain size of approximately 100 µm. Therefore, the selection of the conducting underlayer material is significantly important to design advanced photovoltaic devices based on Ge thin films on glass.

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## 2019年4月3日星期三

### Fabrication of high quality, thin Ge-on-insulator layers by direct wafer-bonding for nanostructured thermoelectric devices

A simple means of fabricating thin Ge-on-insulator layers(GOI layers) with a strong bond at the Ge/SiO2interface through direct wafer-bonding is described. In this work, high quality Ge/SiO2 bonding was achieved under ambient air and at room temperature as a result of the extremely hydrophilic bonding surfaces obtained by chemical treatment prior to direct bonding. Based on the results of this work, the first-ever bonding mechanism between ammonium hydroxide treated Ge and SiO2/Si wafer surfaces is proposed. In addition, strain generated during post-annealing as a consequence of the significant thermal-expansion mismatch between Ge and SiO2 was gradually relieved by applying a multistep-cooling process. Structural characteristics of the thin GOI layer were analyzed by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. It was determined that direct wafer-bonding followed by polishing could produce a GOI layer as thin as 156 nm, with sub-nm surface roughness.

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## 2019年3月25日星期一

### Ultrathin-body Ge-on-insulator wafers fabricated with strongly bonded thin Al2O3/SiO2 hybrid buried oxide layers

An ultrathin-body Ge-on-insulator wafer(GeOI wafer) having a bonded thin Al2O3/SiO2 hybrid buried oxide layer was fabricated using an epitaxially grown Ge film on Si as a Ge donor layer. The epitaxial Ge film was confirmed to have a negligibly low density of crystal-defect-induced p-type carriers and was successfully transferred to form the GeOI wafer. Strong Al2O3/SiO2 bonding effectively suppressed Ge exfoliation during the wafering process. The obtained device-grade GeOI layer and strong bonding strength between Al2O3 and SiO2 are potentially advantageous for future Si-based complementary metal–insulator–semiconductor (CMIS) fabrication processes utilizing large-diameter Si wafers.

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## 2019年3月18日星期一

### High-quality Ge epilayers grown on a Si substrate in one step process via hot wire chemical vapor deposition

High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with a low threading-dislocation density (TDD) were grown by a one step hot wire chemical vapor deposition process at 350°C without cyclic thermal annealing. The Ge layers with threading dislocation density (TDD) of 1-105 cm-2 for a 1.4 μm thick Ge layer were obtained on Si wafers of a diameter Ø = 5 cm. Root mean square of roughness (RMS) of ~ 0.37 nm is achieved. The Ge layers produced are of high optical quality.

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## 2019年3月12日星期二

### Bubble evolution mechanism and stress-induced crystallization in low-temperature silicon wafer bonding based on a thin intermediate amorphous Ge layer

The dependence of the morphology and crystallinity of an amorphous Ge (a-Ge) interlayer between two Si wafers on the annealing temperature is identified to understand the bubble evolution mechanism. The effect of a-Ge layer thickness on the bubble density and size at different annealing temperatures is also clearly clarified. It suggests that the bubble density is significantly affected by the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer. With the increase of the crystallinity and thickness of the a-Ge layer, the bubble density decreases. It is important that a near-bubble-free Ge interface, which is also an oxide-free interface, is achieved when the bonded Si wafers (a-Ge layer thickness  ≥  20 nm) are annealed at 400 °C. Furthermore, the crystallization temperature of the a-Ge between the bonded Si wafers is lower than that on a Si substrate alone and the Ge grains firstly form at the Ge/Ge bonded interface, rather than the Ge/Si interface. We believe that the stress-induced crystallization of a-Ge film and the intermixing of Ge atoms at the Ge/Ge interface can be responsible for this feature.

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## 2019年3月5日星期二

### Room-temperature direct bonding of germanium wafers by surface-activated bonding method

This paper reports the mechanical and electrical characteristics of Ge/Ge interfaces prepared by room-temperature surface-activated bonding (SAB). Bonded Ge/Ge wafer pairs with high bonding strength equivalent to that of the bulk material were achieved without any heat treatment. It was found that the bonding of Ge wafers was not sensitive to the background vacuum pressure in a wafer-bonding chamber compared with the bonding of Si wafers. The current–voltage characteristics and microstructures of bonded interfaces formed by SAB and low-temperature plasma activation bonding (PAB) were compared. It was demonstrated that junctions with very low resistivity can be obtained by SAB at room temperature.

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## 2019年2月18日星期一

### Characteristics of strained-germanium p- and n-channel field effect transistors on a Si substrate

Characteristics of strained-germanium (Ge) p- and n-channel field effect transistors directly on Si (1 1 1) substrates have been investigated. A strained-Ge layer with a thickness of ~4 nm has been grown on the relaxed Si or Si substrate by ultra-high-vacuum chemical vapour deposition. To improve the oxide/strained-Ge interface, a thin Si-cap layer with a thickness of 3 nm has been grown on the strained-Ge layer. After the device process, 1 nm thickness of Si-cap layer remains on the strained-Ge layer. Thicknesses of all epitaxial layers have been measured by transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectroscopy measurement on the Si-cap/strained-Ge layer shows that the strained-Ge layer has a compressive strain of ~1.25%. A hole confinement shoulder on the capacitance–voltage curve at the accumulation region has been observed due to carrier confinement at the Si-cap/strained-Ge hetero-interface. A metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) structure on the strained-Ge layer shows a moderate interface trap charge density of ~2.8 × 1011 cm−2 eV−1. Strained-Ge p- and n-channel field effect transistors show low off-state leakage currents of ~3.8 × 10−13 A µm−1 and ~6.5 × 10−13 A µm−1, respectively. Drive currents of strained-Ge p- and n-channel field effect transistors are enhanced by ~100% and ~40%, respectively, as compared with bulk Si (1 1 1) transistors. Peak hole and electron mobility of strained-Ge (1 1 1) field effect transistors at the low effective field are found to be ~110% and ~30% enhancement, respectively, as compared with bulk Si (1 1 1) transistors, due to high hole and electron mobility enhancement factor as well as strain-induced lower conduction mass in the strained-Ge channel.

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## 2019年2月11日星期一

### Plasma anodic oxidation and nitridation of Ge(111) surface

Critical thickness and strain relaxation of c-plane GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN were studied as a function of growth temperature and threading dislocation density (TDD). For this purpose we used AlN/sapphire templates and AlN single crystals with TDDs of ~109 cm−2 and ~103 cm−2, respectively. Whereas at high growth temperature (900 °C) the critical thickness for plastic relaxation is only 3 monolayers (MLs) for both substrates, this value drastically increases when decreasing the growth temperature. It reaches ~30 MLs when GaN is deposited at 750 °C on AlN single crystals. We also observed that the strain relaxation rate strongly depends on TDD. These results exemplify the lack of efficient gliding planes in III-nitrides when grown along the c-axis, which, combined with low kinetics, allows for plastic relaxation to be frozen out. Achieving pseudomorphic GaN layers on AlN is of interest for two-dimensional electron gases based on AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructures lattice-matched to AlN single crystal substrates.

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## 2019年1月29日星期二

### Quasi-single crystal SiGe on insulator by Au-induced crystallization for flexible electronics

Orientation-controlled large-grain (≥10 µm) crystal, i.e., quasi-single crystal, Ge-rich (≥50%) SiGe on insulator grown at low temperatures (≤300 °C) are desired for realization of high-performance flexible electronics. To achieve this, the Au-induced crystallization technique using a-SiGe/Au stacked structures has been developed. This enables formation of (111)-oriented large-grain (≥10 µm) Si1−xGex (x ≥ 0.5) crystals on insulating substrates at low temperatures (300 °C). The surface layers of the grown SiGe crystals have uniform lateral composition profiles. By using this technique, formation of quasi-single crystal Ge on flexible plastic sheets is demonstrated. This technique will be useful to realize high-performance flexible electronics.

Source:IOPscience

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## 2019年1月21日星期一

### Fabrication, structural and electrical properties of compressively strained Ge-on-insulator substrates

Compressively strained germanium-on-insulator (c-GeOI) substrates with a definitely reduced defect density are expected to yield superior hole mobilities together with low off-state currents in p-type metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). In order to fabricate c-GeOI wafers, we started with double-side polished Si(0 0 1) substrates and grew, by reduced pressure-chemical vapour deposition, Si0.15Ge0.85 virtual substrates (VS) on the front side. The wafer curvature was compensated thanks to the deposition of a thick Ge layer on the backside. We then grew, after a chemical mechanical polishing, various thickness (37–148 nm) Ge layers. They stayed smooth (root-mean-square roughness <5 Å) and pseudomorphically strained on the VS underneath (perpendicular lattice parameter: 5.681 Å Leftrightarrow bulk Ge lattice parameter: 5.658 Å) up to a 74 nm thickness. These c-Ge layers were then bonded on oxidized Si substrates using the SmartCut™ process. The resulting c-GeOI substrates were of high crystalline quality, compressively strained and smooth. The threading dislocations density (8 × 105 cm−2 Leftrightarrow 1.7 × 105 cm−2 for the SiGe VS template used to strain the c-Ge layers) was indeed 20 times less than the one associated with conventional GeOI substrates obtained from thick Ge epilayers. Pseudo-MOSFET measurements were performed to quantify the hole mobility gain in those c-GeOI substrates. A +150% enhancement compared to conventional silicon-on-insulator substrates was evidenced, validating the interest of these stacks.

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## 2019年1月14日星期一

### Research progress of Si-based germanium materials and devices

Si-based germanium is considered to be a promising platform for the integration of electronic and photonic devices due to its high carrier mobility, good optical properties, and compatibility with Si CMOS technology. However, some great challenges have to be confronted, such as: (1) the nature of indirect band gap of Ge; (2) the epitaxy of dislocation-free Ge layers on Si substrate; and (3) the immature technology for Ge devices. The aim of this paper is to give a review of the recent progress made in the field of epitaxy and optical properties of Ge heterostructures on Si substrate, as well as some key technologies on Ge devices. High crystal quality Ge epilayers, as well as Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells with high Ge content, were successfully grown on Si substrate with a low-temperature Ge buffer layer. A local Ge condensation technique was proposed to prepare germanium-on-insulator (GOI) materials with high tensile strain for enhanced Ge direct band photoluminescence. The advances in formation of Ge n+p shallow junctions and the modulation of Schottky barrier height of metal/Ge contacts were a significant progress in Ge technology. Finally, the progress of Si-based Ge light emitters, photodetectors, and MOSFETs was briefly introduced. These results show that Si-based Ge heterostructure materials are promising for use in the next-generation of integrated circuits and optoelectronic circuits.

Source:IOPscience

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## 2019年1月9日星期三

### Investigation of the electrical performance of hfo2 dielectrics deposited on passivated germanium substrates

Propanethiol solution (0.1 M) in 2-propanol, octanethiol solution (0.1 M) in 2-propanol and 20% (NH4)2S solution in water were used to passivate the germanium substrates. HfO2 thin films of 150 ALD cycles were then deposited on the passivated germanium substrates. The morphology of the thin films was investigated by X-ray diffraction and it was found that the morphology of the thin films was not affected by the chemical treatments. A lower leakage current density was observed in the passivated samples compared with the witness one. In addition, the interface quality and long-time stress reliability of the passivated samples were improved when the samples were annealed in forming gas ambient.

Source:IOPscience