The successful formation of abrupt phosphorus (P) δ-doping profiles in germanium (Ge) is reported. When the P δ-doping layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) directly on Ge wafers whose surfaces had residual carbon impurities, more than a half the phosphorus atoms were confined successfully within a few nm of the initial doping position even after the growth of Ge capping layers on the top. On the other hand, the same P layers grown on Ge buffer layers that had much less carbon showed significantly broadened P concentration profiles. Current–voltage characteristics of Au/Ti/Ge capping/P δ-doping/n-Ge structures having the abrupt P δ-doping layers with carbon assistance showed excellent ohmic behaviors when P doses were higher than 1 10 cm and the capping layer thickness was as thin as 5 nm. Therefore, the insertion of carbon around the P doping layer is a useful way of realizing ultrashallow junctions in Ge.
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